The well known inscription of Āditya I of Coḹa dynasty was edited with a great analysis by Sri. K.V.Subrahmanya Iyer in Epigraphia Indica Vol XIX from page 81 to 88. The introductory part given by Iyer, gave the interesting facts in fixing the dates of Parāntaka I and Āditya I. After the Paleographical and Orthographical details, Iyer explained the content of the inscription.
The inscription is the record for gift of a silver Vessel (Keṇdi) of 317 Kaḷañju weight (equal to 1394.8 grams as per Ca. Ganesan’s equation) by Piridipadiyār, son of Māramaraiyār in the 24th regnal year of Āditya Coḹa. It is very much clear that the donor Piridipadiyār is the Prihvīpati II and the Māramaraiyār is Mārasiṃha, both belong to the western Gaṅga dynasty and the former is the well known figure from the Tirupuṙampiyam battle. The god of the temple is referred as Tiruvūṙal Mahadeva. The term Tiruvūṙal is the name of the place given in Devāram hymns.
The text of the inscription is as follows.
Line 1 : Svasthi[ti*] śrī Kovi Rācake
Line 2 : cari Panma[r*]kku Iyāṇḍu
Line 3 : Irupattu nālāvadu ā
Line 4 : ṉit-Talaip Piṙaiyāl
Line 5 : Ti[Tī*]ṇḍiṉa Sūryya grahaṇat
Line 6 : ti Nāṉṙu Tiruvūṙal Māteva
Line 7 : rkku Māramaraiyar makaṉār
Line 8 : Piridipadiyār Kudutta Ve
Line 9 : ḷḷikkeṇḍi Niṙai Muṉnū
Line 10 : ṙṙu orupatteḹu kaḹañju
Line 11 : Idu Panmāhēśva[r*]a rakṣai.
The Main problem of the inscription is lying with the date of the inscription given by the experts. The clue of the date is the solar eclipse mentioned in the inscription happened in the month of Āṉi. The possible dates of the inscription as per Indian Ephemeris are
- Saturday 5th June, 829 CE
- Thursday 14th June, 848 CE
- Saturday 16th June, 866 CE
- Friday, 6th June 867 CE
- Saturday 27th May, 876 CE
- Wednesday, 16th June, 885 CE
- Friday, 7th June, 894 CE
- Wednesday, 28th May, 895 CE
These are the dates where solar eclipse happened in the month of Āṉi. After presenting these dates, Iyer omitted the first five dates, since they are not fitting with the date with Varaguṇa II of Pāṇḍya dynasty, the contemporary of Āditya and whose accession year is fixed as 862 CE by his Aivar malai inscription.
He considered the last two dates i.e 894 CE and 895 CE and accordingly the accession date as 871 or 872 CE. He even considered the date 885 CE.
DATE GIVEN BY N.SETHURAMAN
Sri. N.Sethuraman, who revised the dates of Colas by analyzing the astronomical date provided in the inscriptions, took this inscription and gave two dates that are last two in the list (Early Cholas Mathematics reconstructs the chronology page 3). After analyzing the other details provided in the inscriptions found in Tiruppaḹanam and Tirumaḹavāḍi, he fixed the date as 28th May 895 CE.
THE CLUE WITHIN THE INSCRIPTION
Though Sri. Sethuraman fixed the date as 28th May, 895 CE, he came to the conclusion by analyzing other records. But both the experts, Sri. K.V.Subrahmanya Iyer and Sri. N.Sethuraman surprisingly didn’t notice the phrase “Talaip Piṙaiyāl Tīṇḍina”. The meaning of the phrase is touched with the first day of the fortnight. Though the meaning was given by Sri. Iyer, he didn’t take the same into consideration for fixing the date. If the phrase would have been considered properly, then there could be no confusion regarding the date. Only May 28th, 895 CE has the solar eclipse which was touched with Prathamā and hence can be fixed as the date. It is very surprising that Sri. N.Sethuraman, who played with the astronomical data, didn’t notice this special phrase and fixed the same with other proofs.
It can be clearly said that this inscription belongs to 28th May 895 CE with the special reference given as “Talaip Piṙaiyāl tīṇḍina” and the accession of the Āditya can be fixed as 871 CE.