DEVĀRA TRIO FROM SANSKRIT INSCRIPTION

          Appar, Sambandhar and Sundara Mūrti are called as Devāra Trio since they composed  the Tamil hymns “Devāram”. They are considered as the important amongst the 63 śiva bhaktas. The images of these three along with Māṇikya vācaka are installed and being worshipped in almost all the śiva temples of Tamilnadu. An interesting inscription from Tiruvārūr refers these three saints and Iśaijñāṉiyār, mother of Sundara Mūrti svāmigal. This inscription is dated as 12th CE on paleographic ground and the name of king mentioned as “Anapāya”.

          The inscription is recorded in the Annual report of the Epigraphy of the year 1890 with the number 73. The same is published in the South Indian Inscription volume IV with the number 397. The inscription is inscribed on the wall of the second prākāra of the Tyāgarājasvāmi temple, Tiruvārūr

Line 1 : श्रीमत् ब्रह्मपुरीशवागधिपतिस्सवामिमित्राश्च ये तेभ्यो

Line 2 : हेमसभाधिनाथचरणन्यासोल्लसन्मस्तकः। प्रादात् भूमिहिरण्यकं सर

Line 3 : जतानन्यान्धनान् सोत्तमान्। श्रियारूरधिपस्य मूलवसतौ देवोनपायो नृपः। लक्ष्म्यालये रचितधर्म्मपरानुपाल

Line 4 : शीलान्नृपाङ्घ्रिकमलान् शिरसा नमामि। व्याघ्राग्रहारवरहेमसभानटेशपादारविन्दमधुपो ह्यनपायनामा। ஆளுடைநம்பி மாதாக்கள் இசைஞானியார்। जननि भवतो ज्ञानशिवाचार्यकुलेभवत्।

Line 5 : शैवे गौतमगोत्रेस्मिन् ज्ञान्याख्या कमलापुरे।।

     Metre : śārdūla vikrīḍitam

श्रीमत् ब्रह्मपुरीशवागधिपति(श्री)स्स्वामिमित्राश्च ये।

तेभ्यो हेमसभाधिनाथचरणन्यासोल्लसन्मस्तकः

प्रादात् भूमिहिरण्यकं सरजतानन्यान्धनान् सोत्तमान्।

श्रियारूरधिपस्य मूलवसतौ देवोनपायो नृपः।

śrīmat brahmapurīśavāgadhipati(śrī)ssvāmimitrāśca ye|

tebhyo hemasabhādhināthacaraṇanyāsollasanmastakaḥ

prādāt bhūmihiraṇyakaṁ sarajatānanyāndhanān sottamān|

śriyārūradhipasya mūlavasatau devonapāyo nṛpaḥ|

     Anapāya, whose head is adorned with the lotus feet of Kanaka sabhāpati, gave lands, gold, silver and wealth to Brahmapurīśa (jñāna sambandha), Vāgadhipati (Nāvukkarasar) and Svāmi mitra (Tampirāṉ Toḹar) residing at the Mūlasthāna of Tiruvārūr.

Metre : āryāgīti

लक्ष्म्यालये रचितधर्म्मपरानुपालशीलान्नृपाङ्घ्रिकमलान् शिरसा नमामि। व्याघ्राग्रहारवरहेमसभानटेशपादारविन्दमधुपो ह्यनपायनामा।

lakṣmyālaye racitadharmmaparānupālaśīlānnṛpāṅghrikamalān śirasā namāmi|

vyāghrāgrahāravarahemasabhānaṭeśapādāravindamadhupo hyanapāyanāmā|

     Anapāya, honey bee at the lotus feet of Naṭeśa residing at golden hall of Vyāghrāgrahāra, bows to the lotus feet of the kings those made charities at the Kamalālaya (Tiruvārūr) with his head.

ஆளுடைநம்பி மாதாக்கள் இசைஞானியார்।

Iśaijñāṉiyār, divine mother of Āḷuḍai nambi.

Metre : Anuṣṭup

जननी भवतो ज्ञानशिवाचार्यकुलेभवत्।

शैवे गौतमगोत्रेस्मिन् ज्ञान्याख्या कमलापुरे।।

jananī bhavato jñānaśivācāryakulebhavat|

śaive gautamagotresmin jñānyākhyā kamalāpure||

          Jñāṉi, the great mother, was born in Kamalāpura (Tiruvārūr). She was born in the Gautama gotra of śaiva clan and in the race of Jñānaśivācārya.

          The way of sanskritisation of the names of the Devāra trio is an important one to be mentioned. Jñānasambandha is referred as Brahmapurīśa with his birth place. Appar is referred as Vāgadhipati, the literal translation of the name “Nāvukkarasar”. Sundara Mūrti is referred with his name Tampirān Toḹar (friend of the lord) as “Svāmi-mitra”.

          Another importance of this inscription is, this inscription alone gives the details of the gotra and birthplace of Iśaijñāniyār which is not found in Periyapurāṇam.

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