WRITING IN ANCIENT INDIA – EVIDENCES FROM SANSKRIT DRAMAS

          The Dramas in Sanskrit are called as “śravya Kāvyas”. They too possess evidences on ancient writing. Bhāsa, the earliest dramatist known, is dated as 4th BCE. He gives so many references on writing. Avimāraka, the play written by him, mentions “Pustaka” – book.           विदूषकः भवति, इदमक्षरं नाम पुस्तके नास्ति।           The vidūṣaka answers…

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WRITING IN ANCIENT INDIA – EVIDENCES FROM ŚRAVYA KĀVYAS

          In Sanskrit the Śravya Kāvyas are divided into three Poetry type kāvyas (Padya) Prose type kāvyas (Gadya) and Mixture of the both called Campū These kāvyas too have so many references for writing in ancient India. Raghuvaṃśa Mahākāvya written by the great poet Kālidāsa refers the script as follows लिपेर्यथावद्ग्रहणेन वाङ्मयं नदीमुखेनेव समुद्रमाविशत्। liperyathāvadgrahaṇena…

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WRITING IN ANCIENT INDIA – EVIDENCES FROM ARTHA, KĀMA AND NĀṬYA ŚĀSTRAS

          The word Artha means the resource. The resources of life viz earth, wealth, cereals and cattle are called as Artha. The science by which these are earned is called  Arthaśāstra. According to tradition, Artha śāstras were written by my Father, Bṛhaspati, śukrācārya, Nārada and others. But the Artha śāstra written by Cāṇakya is fully…

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WRITING IN ANCIENT INDIA – LITERARY EVIDENCES FROM DHARMA ŚĀSTRA

          Smṛtis are the ancient law texts of India. There are more than twenty such texts are available today. These texts too have so many references which enact as the evidences for writing in ancient India. Nārada smṛti gives an important note on writing.           नाकरिष्यद्यदि ब्रह्मा लिखितं चक्षुरुत्तमम्।       तत्रेयमस्य लोकस्य नाभविष्यच्छुभा गतिः।। नारदस्मृतिः,…

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WRITING IN ANCIENT INDIA – LITERARY EVIDENCES IN ITIHĀSAS AND PURĀṆAS

We have already seen the literary evidences in Vedas and Vedāṅgas for the writing in ancient India. Now we can proceed to the Itihāsas and Purāṇas the religious scriptures of India. Rāmāyaṇa and Mahābhārata are the two important epics of India. The two epics have important evidences that can be quoted to claim the ancientness…

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